The effects of citric acid and acidulated phosphate fluoride on the surface roughness of autoglazed and overglazed all-ceramic IPS Empress materials were analyzed. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the roughness. Citric acid solution (2.00%) was applied for 8 hours, simulating 2 years of exposure. Acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (1.23%) was applied for 32 minutes, simulating 2 years of fluoride therapy. Acidulated phosphate fluoride caused a significant roughening effect on both autoglazed and overglazed specimens.