The grafting of powder and granular polypropylene (PP) with maleic anhydride (MA) was investigated in a reactive extrusion process with dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as an initiator. The effects of the MA and DCP contents in the feed on grafting were investigated. Under the experimental conditions applied in this study, the grafted monomer unit content was varied from 0.023 to 0.5%. The MA grafting efficiency of powder PP was higher than that obtained for the granular form of PP. In general, the grafting degree first increased with the MA or DCP content in the feed, then reached a maximum value, and finally decreased because of several possible alternative reactions during the grafting. The grafting of powder PP was more successful because of better initial mixing and less diffusional resistance during the grafting. An increase in the MA content in the feed caused significant reductions in the melt-flow index of the graft copolymers. The results obtained with Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray powder diffraction analyses indicated that the structure, macrotacticity, crystallinity, crystallization, and thermal behavior of PP changed with grafting and depended on the grafting degree. (C) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.