In parallel with industrial advancements, number of the occupational diseases secondary to chemical exposure is increasing. The chemical agents in the work places affect various organ and tissue systems, leading to chronic diseases. In this study, the cases diagnosed with occupational disease due to exposure to lead were studied and importance of the environmental forensic sciences on this issue was emphasized. A hundred and ninety patients diagnosed with occupational disease related to lead intoxication in Ankara Occupational Diseases Hospital between 01/01/2009 and 31/12/2009 were included in the study. Twenty cases were used as the controls. Sociodemographic characteristics, serum chemical parameters and hematological parameters of the patients were retrospectively assessed. Mean age of the cases included in the study was 35.3 +/- 8.69. Hemoglobin (Hb) (p = 0.018) and Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (p < 0.001) values were found significantly lower in the patients with lead exposure than in the controls. Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was significantly lower in the patients with lead exposure than in the controls (p = 0.002), whereas alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was found higher (p < 0.001). In thyroid function test (TFTs) panel, free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were found significantly higher in the patients with lead exposure than in the control group (p = 0.01), while Thyrotrophin-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were lower (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found in terms of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values. In the correlation analysis; serum level of serum lead (Pb) was correlated positively with ALP values and negatively with Hb, MCV and TSH. Considering its effects on the biochemical and hematological parameters, a detailed investigation should be carried out in the cases with lead exposure, which occupies an important place among the occupational diseases. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.