Here we report a patient who developed tumour lysis syndrome following a diagnostic tonsillectomy for suspected lymphoma. Following anesthesia induction, the patient suffered cardiopulmonary arrest, which required cardiopulmonary resuscitation. After successful resuscitation, the operation ended and the patient was transported to the intensive care unit. The patient's clinical course was diagnosed as tumor lysis syndrome due to documented clinical and laboratory parameters. This case report suggests that the development of tumour lysis syndrome is a consequence of several stressful conditions that are significantly associated with each other, and management should focus on prophylactic options, careful monitorization and treatment of clinical and laboratory abnormalities.