EURASIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, vol.9, no.36, pp.23-38, 2009 (SSCI)
Throughout most of the past 100 years there have been major paradigm shifts in the structure and organization of schools. Perhaps one of the most widespread changes has been the integration of counseling into public schools. This concept, originally defined as "guidance," evolved first in the United States but has been widely adopted throughout the world in industrialized countries. As the concept of education has been more widely defined, schools have sought not only to teach information but also to prepare students for a productive future and meaningful participation in the adult world. This has led to the adoption of school counseling programs as an integral component of the public education system. The school counselor has thus joined the classroom teacher and school administrator as the third major component of the professional educational staff in many nations across the Europe, Asia, Australia, and the Americas. The role and function of the school counselor have evolved in quite different ways in different countries and this article explores this evolution as well as the current status of school counseling as it exits in Costa Rica, Turkey, and the United States. These three countries represent the countries of origin of the three authors.