Anti-Hyperglycemic Agents for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Role in Cardioprotection During the Last Decade

KOÇYİĞİT D., Gurses K. M. , YALÇIN M. U. , Tokgozoglu L.

ENDOCRINE METABOLIC & IMMUNE DISORDERS-DRUG TARGETS, vol.17, no.1, pp.19-31, 2017 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 17 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.2174/1871530317666170424101846
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.19-31


Type 2 diabetic patients are known to have a tendency to develop cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD), and related unfavourable outcomes such as heart failure, myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular events (e.g. stroke), and related mortality. Long-term clinical trials have revealed contradictory findings regarding the relationship between glycemic control and CV benefits due to variations in the key characteristics of the study population. During the last decade, number of pharmacological agents used for glucose-lowering in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased owing to the introduction of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors. This review aims to focus on the mechanisms of action of these drugs in the cardiovascular system and the trials evaluating their impact on CVD. Furthermore, trials in the last decade evaluating the impact of traditional glucose-lowering drugs on CVD are included. For this purpose, we searched PubMed for articles in English using the search terms "type 2 diabetes mellitus, glucose-lowering drugs, antidiabetic medications, cardiovascular, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular system" between inception to September 2016. We also searched separately for each medication in addition to the keyword "cardiovascular disease" on PubMed. To identify further articles, we hand searched related citations in review articles and commentaries.