The Founding of the Attaché Office in the Ottoman Empire's Ministry of Foreign Affairs During the Tanzimat Tanzímât Döneminde Osmanli Hariciyesinde Ataşelik Memuriyetinin Teşekkülü

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Turkiyat Mecmuasi, vol.32, no.1, pp.355-379, 2022 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 32 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.26650/iuturkiyat.1105943
  • Journal Name: Turkiyat Mecmuasi
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.355-379
  • Keywords: Attaché, Diplomacy, Military attaché, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tanzîmât
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 Istanbul Universitesi. All rights reserved.Although the Ottoman Empire had started experiencing the transition to permanent diplomacy in the last quarter of the 18th century, the formation and development of diplomatic missions abroad had been adequately completed in the second period of the Tanzimat (1856-1876). During this period, the Ottoman State opened new diplomatic missions and formed their structure in parallel with the European style. After 1856, the office of attaché was adopted in the Ottoman embassies in accordance with the model of other European states as the lowest-ranking official in foreign missions. Initially, this post was entrusted to some Ottoman students who'd been commissioned abroad for educational purposes. Although patrimonial relations were influential in these assignments, the Sublime Porte also considered the criteria of merit. Moreover, Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha also established the office of military attaché just after 1856 during the Tanzîmât. The Sublime Porte initially assigned military officers commissioned abroad for military training as military attachés. This article focuses on the emergence of the office of attaché during the first period of professionalization in the Ottoman foreign ministry.