Tordylium is a medium-sized genus characterized by an annual habit, 1-3-pinnate leaves, dorsally compressed mericarps, and thickened mericarp margins. Eighteen Tordylium species occur in Turkey, of which seven are endemic. Although the morphology of the genus is well known, evolutionary relationships among its species have never been evaluated. In this study, phylogenetic relationships within Tordylium are investigated using parsimony analysis based on morphological data from 17 ingroup and 15 outgroup taxa from Turkey. The results indicate that Tordylium is paraphyletic due to the inclusion of Ormosciadium. Further, it suggests that Hasselquistia, Condylocarpus and Ainsworthia are nested within Tordylium, confirming their current taxonomic treatment as synonyms. Within the paraphyletic Tordylium, two major clades are apparent, but these clades are not compatible with the current sub-generic classification. Tordylium lanatum, T. aegyptiacum and T. elegans, which have dimorphic mericarps, form a monophyletic subclade. In addition, it is suggested that T. aegaeum should be accepted as a distinct species rather than as a synonym of T. pestalozzae.