Two parthenogenetic populations from Camalt(1) (Izmir, Turkey) and Kalloni (Lesbos, Greece) were evaluated for their tolerance and fitness at different salinities and temperatures under laboratory conditions aiming to compare salinity and temperature effects upon special characteristics of the two Artemia strains, such as survival, growth rate, age of maturity and morphometry. Furthermore, biometry, hatching characteristics and fatty acid profile of Camalt(1) cysts were evaluated for potential use in aquaculture. This evaluation revealed that both populations showed significant differences in their response to different temperatures and salinity. Although significant differences occurred between Kalloni and Camalt(1) in survival at 25 and 30 degreesC, neither of the strains exhibited good performance at high temperature. The optimum salinity for the Camalt(1) population was 80 g 1(-1), while the Kalloni population appeared to perform well at 120 g 1(-1). The fatty acid composition of Camalt(1) cysts was found to be of good quality for use in aquaculture, especially in feeding larvae of marine species.