Comparative Plant Metabolomics of Momordica charantia Seeds and Fruits

Eneş D., Fidan B. B., Başaran A. A., ÇELEBİER M.

Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s43450-024-00539-2
  • Journal Name: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Antidiabetic, LC–MS, Phytochemical, Plant metabolomics, Wound healing
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Momordica charantia L., Cucurbitaceae, known mainly as karela, bitter gourd or bitter melon, and balsam pear, is used for antihyperglycemic, antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulation, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, antiulcer, antilipolytic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory and wound healing. This study aimed to elucidate the differences in the metabolites of 70% methanol extracts of M. charantia seeds and fruit using untargeted metabolomics. Liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry–based analysis of the extracts for both seed and fruit was performed using a C-18 column. Differences were observed in seed and fruit extracts, which were visualized using principal component analysis plots. (R)-Salsolinol, pantetheine, coumarin, tryptamine, lysophospholipidPC(O-18:0), glucosylceramide, pyroglutamic acid, and presqualene diphosphate in the seed and fruit of M. charantia were detected in different levels. The amount of lysophospholipidPC(O-18:0) (lysoPC(O-18:0)) and glucosylceramide is high in the fruit, while the amount of (R)-salsolinol, pantetheine, coumarin, tryptamine, presqualene diphosphate, and pyroglutamic acid is high in the seed. These primary untargeted metabolomic results revealed that the different pharmacological effects may be related to the variable amounts of some specific metabolites in seeds and fruits. Graphical Abstract: (Figure presented.).