SUMMARY: Çengel-Kültür SE, Çöp E, Kara A, Cengiz AB, Uludağ AK, Ünal F. The relationship between group A beta hemolytic streptococcal infection and psychiatric symptoms: a pilot study. Turk J Pediatr 2009; 51: 317-324. The aim of this study was to test if children with group A beta hemolytic streptococcal infection (GABHS) are more likely to develop neuropsychiatric symptoms or the syndrome of Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS) compared to children with GABHS-negative throat cultures. Children aged 8 to 12 years (n=81) with upper respiratory tract infection were assessed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version, Children’s Yale Brown Obsession Compulsion Scale, Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 4-18, Conners Parent Rating Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children at baseline and six weeks later. One case of PANDAS was diagnosed and no other differences were observed between groups and time points. It was suggested that GABHS infection may be a triggering factor for PANDAS in some genetically prone individuals.