Cannabis in Healthcare: Ethnobotanical and Pharmaceutical Perspectives and Legal Status in Turkey and the Middle East

Özenver N.

in: Cannabis/Marijuana for Healthcare, Dinesh Chandra Agrawal,Rajiv Kumar,Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran, Editor, Springer Nature, Singapore, pp.131-154, 2022

  • Publication Type: Book Chapter / Chapter TextBook
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Publisher: Springer Nature
  • City: Singapore
  • Page Numbers: pp.131-154
  • Editors: Dinesh Chandra Agrawal,Rajiv Kumar,Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran, Editor
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Cannabis refers to the plants in the genus Cannabis (Cannabaceae) and has been used traditionally for assorted purposes by human beings since ancient times. In addition to the ethnobotanical aspects, cannabis- associated products were evidenced to possess numerous beneficial effects on health, suggesting its therapeutic potential. On the other hand, these products exert adverse effects, which may constitute incontrovertibly detrimental outcomes and limit its use by communities. Therefore, cannabis cultivation, use, and traffic are mostly illegal globally although people have attributed a great value to cannabis throughout history. In the present chapter, cannabis will be mentioned in terms of ethnobotanical and pharmaceutical perspectives. Besides, the cannabis situation in Turkey and the Middle East will be explained. The importance of cannabis, in particular for medical purposes, will be emphasized in the light of current scientific data. Thus, a notion concerning the positive and negative impacts of cannabis-based substance use on health together with a future perspective providing the potential of cannabis-based therapeutics for public health will be discussed.