The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of ethylene glycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and EDTA on removal of the smear layer by using scanning electron microscopy, Fifteen single-rooted teeth were instrumented to size 60, Three teeth served as the control group, and the remaining teeth were assigned into two groups. After instrumentation, root canals of the first group were irrigated with 10 ml of 17% EDTA, and the second group was irrigated with 10 mi of 17% EGTA for 2 min. Both were then irrigated with 10 mi of 5% NaOCl, The teeth in the control group were irrigated with only 10 mi of 5% NaOCl. Then the specimens were sectioned longitudinally and processed for scanning electron microscopy, The results showed that the smear layer was completely removed by EDTA, but it caused erosion of the tubuli, EGTA was somewhat effective in removing the smear layer without inducing erosion. Our results suggest that EGTA is an alternative chelator for removing the smear layer.