Advances in experimental medicine and biology, vol.1275, pp.357-382, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)
While protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play an initiative role in growth factor-mediated cellular processes, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) negatively regulates these processes, acting as tumor suppressors. Besides selective tyrosine dephosphorylation of PTKs via PTPs may affect oncogenic pathways during carcinogenesis. The PTP family contains a group of dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) that regulate the activity of Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are key effectors in the control of cell growth, proliferation and survival. Abnormal MAPK signaling is critical for initiation and progression stages of carcinogenesis. Since depletion of DUSP-MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) can reduce tumorigenicity, altering MAPK signaling by DUSP-MKP inhibitors could be a novel strategy in anti-cancer therapy. Moreover, Cdc25A is, a DUSP and a key regulator of the cell cycle, promotes cell cycle progression by dephosphorylating and activating cyclin--dependent kinases (CDK). Cdc25A-CDK pathway is a novel mechanism in carcinogenesis. Besides the mammalian target of rapamycin ( mTOR) kinase inhibitors or mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 ( mTORC1) inhibition in combination with the dual phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/mTOR or AKT kinase inhibitors are more effective in inhibiting the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) and cap- dependent translation. Dual targeting of the Akt and mTOR signaling pathways regulates cellular growth, proliferation and survival. Like the Cdc2-like kinases (CLK), dual-specific tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) are essential for the regulation of cell fate. The crosstalk between dual-specific phosphatases and dual-specific protein kinases is a novel drug target for anti-cancer therapy. Therefore, the focus of this chapter involves protein kinase modules, critical biochemical checkpoints of cancer therapy and the synergistic effects of protein kinases and anti-cancer molecules.