Investigating the effects of low-cost head-mounted display based virtual reality environments on learning and presence

Tepe T., TÜZÜN H.

MULTIMEDIA TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS, vol.82, no.9, pp.14307-14327, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 82 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11042-022-13794-z
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, FRANCIS, ABI/INFORM, Applied Science & Technology Source, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, INSPEC, zbMATH
  • Page Numbers: pp.14307-14327
  • Keywords: Virtual reality, Head-mounted display, Learning in virtual reality environments, Presence, User experience, DESK-TOP, EDUCATION, HMD, SIMULATIONS, IMPACTS, GAME, VR
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, it is aimed to reduce the cost of using virtual reality (VR) in education by using low-cost wireless VR devices. In this direction, the effect of low-cost VR environments developed for head-mounted displays (HMD) on learning and to what extent the presence is created in virtual environments within the scope of the "Fire and Emergency Situations" course was examined. In addition, student experiences in VR environments were investigated. Multimedia design principles were used while developing the VR environments. Adopted embedded experimental research design was used in the study. The study was carried out with 2 experimental groups and a comparison group, a total of 96 students, 32 in each. Experimental group 1 participated in both of teacher-centered direct instruction and VR implementations, experimental group 2 participated only in VR implementations, and comparison group only participated in teacher-centered direct instruction. A fire knowledge test was applied to all students before and after the implementations. The "Presence Questionnaire in Virtual Environments" and "Three-Dimensional Virtual Learning Environments Evaluation Scale" were applied to the experimental groups after the implementations. Moreover, students' opinions about VR implementations were obtained through semi-structured interviews. After the implementations, the achievement of the experimental groups and comparison group increased statistically. VR implementations have created a high level of presence for all students in the experimental groups. The participants expressed positive opinions about implementations. VR implementations reduce the risk factors that can be encountered in authentic life and can be useful in the acquisition of kinesthetic skills.