Background: L-asparaginase is a crucial chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The alternatives to L-asparaginase are not available in many parts of the world, including Turkey. Objective: We sought to evaluate the utility of premedication with or without a desensitization protocol in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and systemic hypersensitivity reactions to Escherichia coli-asparaginase. Methods: In this prospective study patients with systemic hypersensitivity reactions to E coli-asparaginase for whom we were unable to ascertain/provide other alternatives to asparaginase were either premedicated, desensitized, or both to receive their chemotherapy as E coli-asparaginase according to the severity of the hypersensitivity reaction. Results: Nineteen patients (13 male patients) with a mean age of 7.4 ± 4.7 years experienced a systemic hypersensitivity reaction to E coli-asparaginase during a 4-year period. Polyethylene glycol-asparaginase could be used for 3 patients. Eight of the remaining 16 children, who had experienced anaphylaxis, were premedicated and desensitized with E coli-asparaginase, and in 7 patients treatment was tolerated. The other 8 patients, with acute allergic reactions to E coli-asparaginase, were premedicated first, and 5 of them showed no reaction subsequently. Three of them demonstrated systemic hypersensitivity reactions again (anaphylaxis, n = 3), and premedication and desensitization with E coli-asparaginase resulted in anaphylaxis. Polyethylene glycol-asparaginase was administered uneventfully to the patients who could be provided it. Conclusion: E coli-asparaginase could be administered to more than half of the patients who had a hypersensitivity reaction, and all of these patients were able to receive their planned doses of asparaginase. In countries with shortages of alternative asparaginase preparations, our approach might be a suitable option. © 2009 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.