Hacettepe University Journal of the Faculty of Pharmacy, vol.37, no.2, pp.105-123, 2017 (Scopus)
© 2017, Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy. All rights reserved.Diabetes which is among the top five diseases causing death, is a chronic complex metabolic disease characterized by impaired carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Diabetes is classified as Type 1, Type 2, other specific types of diabetes and gestational diabetes. Acute or chronic complications are seen in diabetes as a result of decreased insulin release and disorders in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. In addition, both pharmacokinetic and pharmacody-namic properties of drugs may alter due to changes in the levels of drug metabolizing enzymes and absorptive and efflux transporters responsible for drug transport. Oral antidiabetics used in the treatment of diabetes are collected in three groups; increasing insulin secretion from pancreas, increasing insulin sensitivity, and decreasing glucose absorption. Diabetes has entered into priority research areas all over the world due to the observed increase in diabetes such reasons as increase in world population, aging, urbanization, obesity frequency and physical inactivity. In this review, it was focused on the definition, classification, prevalence, complications, treatment of diabetes and development of experimental diabetes, and changes in the enzymes and transporters levels.