On the development of blockchain-based learning management system as a metacognitive tool to support self-regulation learning in online higher education

Saadati Z., Zeki C. P. , VATANKHAH BARENJI R.

INTERACTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10494820.2021.1920429


The study of online higher education learning and academic achievement has increasingly emphasized self-regulated learning (SRL). Few studies so far have investigated the blockchain-based learning management system (LMS) and adaptive SRL intervention in online higher education. This paper aimed to develop a blockchain-enabled LMS as a metacognitive tool in online higher education with SRL adaptive intervention (AI) to improve planning, monitoring, collaboration, zone of proximal development (ZPD), scaffolding, and reflection towards self-regulation development and learning achievement. To do that, based on the benchmark data of 33 English Language Teaching (ELT) Master of Art (MA) students, the blockchain-based LMS is developed that provided three phases of planning, action, and reflection SRL AI throughout the online programme. Data were collected quantitatively by utilizing SRL pre - and post-test questionnaire which were analysed along the t-test and qualitatively by adopting reflective essays which were analysed through the content analysis method. The findings of the study revealed that the blockchain-based SRL intervention online programme had provided opportunities for MA candidates to develop their SRL skills in realistic goal setting, and their self-monitoring, self-reflection, self-awareness through coaching/judging, ZPD, and collaboration.