© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.The uniqueness of paclitaxel’s antimitotic action mechanism has fueled research toward its application in more effective and safer cancer treatments. However, the low water solubility, recrystallization, and side effects hinder the clinical success of classic paclitaxel chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy and biodistribution of paclitaxel encapsulated in injectable amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles of different surface charges. It was found that paclitaxel-loaded amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles showed an antitumoral effect earlier than the drug solution. Moreover, the blank nanoparticles reduced the tumor growth with a similar trend to the paclitaxel solution. At 24 h, the nanoparticles had not accumulated in the heart and lungs according to the biodistribution assessed by in vivo imaging. Therefore, our results indicated that the amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles are potentially devoid of cardiac toxicity, which limits the clinical use and commercialization of certain polymeric nanoparticles. In conclusion, the amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles with different surface charge increased the efficiency of paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo. Cyclodextrin nanoparticles could be a good candidate vehicle for intravenous paclitaxel delivery.