A rare and preventable aetiology of neurodevelopmental delay and epilepsy: familial glucocorticoid deficiency

Ozbek M. N., Demiral M., Unal E., Karasin N. D., Baran R. T., DEMİRBİLEK H.

JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, vol.34, no.11, pp.1463-1468, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 34 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1515/jpem-2021-0150
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.1463-1468
  • Keywords: familial glucocorticoid deficiency, MC2R, MRAP, psychomotor retardation, PRIMARY ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY, HYPOGLYCEMIA, MANAGEMENT
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Objectives: Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R) mediates the functions of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the adrenal cortex. MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) is a transmembrane protein involved in the trafficking of MC2R to the cell surface. Mutations in MC2R and MRAP genes cause FGD type 1 and 2. In the present case series, we evaluate the clinical characteristics and longterm follow-up of six cases with FGD due to mutations in MC2R and MRAP. Case presentation: Data of six cases with FGD (five with mutations in MC2R and one with a mutation in MRAP) who were being followed at our paediatric endocrine centre was evaluated. Diagnosis of FGD was considered in case of elevated ACTH and inappropriately low cortisol level, and exclusion of other aetiologies. The main presenting complaints were hyperpigmentation and hypoglycaemic convulsion in all cases. During a follow-up period of 26-115 months, one patient with homozygous 560delT mutation in MC2R, one female with G226R mutation in MC2R and one female with IVS3ds+1delG mutation in MRAP had a neurodevelopmental delay (NDD), while the other three patients had normal neurodevelopment. Conclusions: FGD patients due to MC2R and MRAP mutations with early diagnosis and compliance to the hydrocortisone therapy had normal neurodevelopment, while delay in diagnosis and poor compliance was associated with severe hypoglycaemic convulsions and subsequent complications NDD.