Are Pain Beliefs, Cognitions, and Behaviors Influenced by Race, Ethnicity, and Culture in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Systematic Review

Orhan C., Van Looveren E., Cagnie B., Mukhtar N. B., Lenoir D., Meeus M.

PAIN PHYSICIAN, vol.21, no.6, pp.541-558, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 21 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Journal Name: PAIN PHYSICIAN
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.541-558
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Chronic pain has been considered as a biopsychosocial condition in which cognitive and emotional factors as well as biological factors significantly affect perception of pain. Race, ethnicity and culture have a crucial impact on illness beliefs, health care preferences, help-seeking behaviors, and acceptance of medical interventions.