Affinity Recognition Based Gravimetric Nanosensor for Equilin Detection

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CHEMOSENSORS, vol.10, no.5, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/chemosensors10050172
  • Journal Name: CHEMOSENSORS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: equilin, molecular docking, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), affinity-recognition-based sensor, CIBACRON BLUE, HYDROPHOBICITY, CHROMATOGRAPHY, EQUILENIN, DOCKING, SURFACE, SENSOR
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The estrogenic hormones that are widely used in postmenopausal hormone supplements for women contaminate natural water resources. Equilin (Equ) is one of the estrogenic hormones that have a maximum contaminant level of 0.35 mu g/L in the chemical pollutants list. In this study, estrogenic hormones were precisely detected in a short time by affinity-recognition-based interactions in Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors. The QCM sensors were modified with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid forming a self-assembled monolayer and with amino acids, namely tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine. The affinity interactions between Equ and amino acids were studied using docking tools and confirmed by QCM experiments. The LODs of Equ were obtained as 4.59, 5.05 and 6.30 ng/L for tyrosine-, tryptophan- and phenylalanine-modified QCM nanosensors, respectively, with linear dynamic detection in the range of 25-500 nM. In terms of the LOD, selectivity and sensitivity calculations, the tyrosine-modified QCM nanosensor was found to have the highest performance for Equ detection compared to the tryptophan- and phenylalanine-modified ones.