Morphologic and morphometric evaluation of nutrient foramina of tibia

Ulkir M., KARAÇOBAN L., Günes B.

Journal of the Anatomical Society of India, vol.72, no.3, pp.239-245, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 72 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.4103/jasi.jasi_87_22
  • Journal Name: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier
  • Page Numbers: pp.239-245
  • Keywords: Anatomy, morphometry, nutrient foramina, Tibia
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the morphologic and morphometric characteristics of nutrient foramina on dry tibia bones, as well as the clinical implications. Materials and Methods: This study involved 63 tibiae (28 right and 35 left). The length of the tibia, number, direction, size, and location of nutrient foramina in relation to borders, surfaces, and soleal line, the distance between the nutrient foramina and proximal tibial end, the mediolateral, anteroposterior diameter of the tibial shaft at the level of the nutrient foramina, and the foraminal and cnemicus indexes were evaluated. The size of the nutrient foramina was classified using hypodermic needles of 14-16-18-20-22-24 gauge. Nutrient foramina with gauge sizes of 14-16, 18-20, and 22-24 were classified as large, medium, and small, respectively. Results: On the tibia, there is usually one nutrient foramina (92.06%), which may locate on the posterior surface (91.18%), lateral to the soleal line (95.17%), and in the upper 1/3 of the tibia (80.9%). The nutrient foramina was primarily 18-20 gauge (72.05%) and directed downward. Discussion and Conclusion: The morphological and morphometric features of nutrition foramina are vital to know, especially in surgical procedures and fractures of the upper 1/3 of the tibia. The sizes of NFs were evaluated detail in this study, and it was found that shorter tibiae had smaller NFs that were located more proximal than medium and large NFs. This morphological feature was described in the literature for the first time.