FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol.395, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
A kinetic model was proposed by using a multiresponse kinetic modeling approach for Maillard and caramelization reactions in low moisture foods at neutral pH containing a moderate amount of amino acid and sucrose but a restricted amount reducing sugar. The change in the amount of sucrose, protein-bound lysine, free amino acids, and certain products of Maillard reaction was monitored during roasting of sunflower seed, pumpkin seed, flaxseed, peanut, and almond at 160 and 180 degrees C. A slightly different model was proposed for pumpkin seed due to its difference in compositional and physicochemical characteristics as expressed by principal component analysis. Accordingly, 3-deoxyglucosone formation via sugar degradation; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation from 3-deoxyglucosone and only in pumpkin seeds the conversion of N-c-fructoselysine to glyoxal and Heyns product to 1-deoxyglucosone were found to be quantitatively important. N-c-carboxymethyllysine and N-c-carboxyethyllysine mainly originated through oxidation of N-c-fructoselysine and the reaction of methylglyoxal with lysine residue, respectively.