Reconsidering the Practices of "Resm-i Cift" in the Ottoman State


GÜMÜŞÇÜ O., ERDOĞAN ÖZÜNLÜ E.

TARIH INCELEMELERI DERGISI, cilt.31, sa.1, ss.177-217, 2016 (ESCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 31 Konu: 1
  • Basım Tarihi: 2016
  • Dergi Adı: TARIH INCELEMELERI DERGISI
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.177-217

Özet

It is known that social, economic, administrative and military systems of the Ottomans were based on the timar system. This system rested on the taming of the land that is large enough to earn a family's keep and was called "Cift- hane" system. The land whose proprietary right was on the state was named as "Cift" and a family was enjoined to tame this land constantly except obligatory cases. The family could keep this land on condition that they pay the tax, called " resmi Cift", to the cavalryman as the representative of the state without delay, and also the family was able to referral this land from father to son. The Ottoman administration adopted the longestablished social and economic order in the conquered lands and brought about some changes within time when it was necessary. In this context, resm-i Cift, one of the most important taxes collected from the people, was collected in different amounts all over the empire. In essence, although the tax of the land was collected among three categories, " ala-evsat-edna", it is necessary to explain the variety of amounts for resm- i Cift. An analysis on the documents and studies indicates that Cift tax changed in accordance with time and space and it was between 6 and 100 akce. Therefore, in this study, by focusing on the reasons of the mentioned differences, the question of whether "historical factors taken over previous administration" are the only reason as pointed out by Barkan and others; or "spatial factors" are also effective has been tried to be answered and it is concluded that especially the balance of the "supply-demand" came to the forefront.