It is known that with globalization neoliberal policies have been widely adopted in developed and developing countries. Meanwhile, income inequality and poverty has gradually increased and became an important problem around the world. On the other hand, Turkey and Chile have implemented similar neoliberal political and economic policies to struggle against income inequality and poverty. In this context, objective of this study is to examine the reflections of neoliberal economic policies implemented by Turkey and Chile (GINI coefficent, poverty ratios, Human Development Index) on income distribution and poverty statistics. As a result, it can be argued that Chile has been pursuing more efficient policies than Turkey in terms of struggle against income inequality and poverty.