Evaluation of the compatibility of C2, C3, and C4 fractal dimension values with hand- wrist and cervical vertebra maturation methods in determining skeletal maturation

PAMUKÇU U., İSPİR N. G. , Akay G., Atas O. K. , Gungor K., Toraman M.

DENTOMAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY, vol.51, no.7, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 51 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1259/dmfr.20220113
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE
  • Keywords: Skeletal maturation, fractal analysis, cervical vertebrae, cephalometric radio-graphs, pubertal growth spurt, AGE ESTIMATION, COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, YOUNG ADOLESCENTS, CHRONOLOGICAL AGE, BONE-AGE, INDICATORS, AGREEMENT, CHILDREN
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Objectives: To examine the correlation between the fractal dimension (FD) values of cervical vertebrae (C2, C3, and C4) and hand -wrist maturation (HWM) and cervical vertebra matu-ration (CVM) methods. In addition, the correlation between the pubertal growth spurt (PGS) and FD values was examined.Methods: The lateral cephalometric and hand -wrist radiographs of 120 subjects (61 females and 59 males) aged 8-18 years with a mean age of 13 years, were evaluated retrospectively. The CVM stages were determined in accordance with Hassel-Farman's modification of Lamparski criteria. The HWM stages were determined in accordance with Bjork and Grave -Brown criteria. Both HWM and CVM stages were divided into two according to PGS. Fractal analysis of cervical vertebrae was performed according to the White-Rudolph method. The relationships between HWM stages, CVM stages and other variables were evaluated by Spear-man's rank -order correlation coefficient. The relationships between FD values, chronological age, and divided stages were evaluated by the Pearson correlation coefficient. The Mann- Whitney U test was used to compare the FD values of two divided stages.Results: There were positive and statistically significant positive correlations between chrono-logical age and both HWM and CVM stages. There was a positive and statistically significant correlation between CVM and HWM stages. In females and total, there were negative and statistically significant correlations between C4 FD values and divided HWM stages, and the differences between C4 FD values of divided HWM stages were also statistically significant. In total, there was a negative and statistically significant correlation between C4 FD values and divided CVM stages, and the difference between C4 FD values of divided CVM stages was also statistically significant.Conclusion: The negative correlations found between C4 FD values and divided HWM and CVM stages suggest the fractal analysis of cervical vertebrae, especially of C4, may be used as an objective tool for evaluating the PGS