Renal effects of long-term lithium therapy, revisited

Yazici M. K., Eroglu E. O., ERTUĞRUL A., ANIL YAĞCIOĞLU A. E., Agaoglu E., KARAHAN S., ...More

HUMAN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL, vol.37, no.2, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 37 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/hup.2812
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: kidney function, lithium, nephrotoxicity, proteinuria, urine protein, creatinine ratio, DISEASE, MANAGEMENT, DISORDERS
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lithium treatment on renal function and to determine influencing factors. In addition, the utility of spot urine protein/creatinine ratio in detection of lithium induced nephropathy was also investigated. Methods Serum concentrations of lithium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urinalysis including protein/creatinine ratio were measured in 375 patients using lithium. Results Patients taking lithium for >= 8 years had higher BUN, creatinine levels, percentage of proteinuria, percentages of stage 2 and 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD); lower urine density and eGFR compared to patients taking lithium 0.8 and 0.6-0.8 mmol/L lithium level than <0.6 mmol/L. Predictors of CKD were serum level of lithium, dose of lithium, cumulative duration of lithium use, age at onset of illness, and caffeine consumption. Conclusions Detrimental effects of lithium on renal functions were detected after lithium use for >= 8 years. Proteinuria measured by spot urine protein/creatinine ratio can be detected even when eGFR is >90 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Spot urine protein/creatinine ratio, which is a cost-effective and practical laboratory test, can be used to monitor lithium-treated patients.