This study aimed to evaluate the morphological and elemental changes that occur on the surface of calcium silicate-based cement (CSC) and to analyze the bond strength of composite resin to CSC after application of various bleaching agents. One hundred twenty-five CSC blocks (Biodentine) were prepared and randomly divided into five groups according to the bleaching agent applied over the material surface (n=25): SP-DW (sodium perborate-distilled water mixture), SP-HP (sodium perborate-3% hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] mixture), CP (37% carbamide peroxide gel), HP (35% H2O2 gel), and a control group (no bleaching agent). After 1 week, scanning electron microscopy provided an analysis of the surface morphology and elemental composition for 10 specimens from each group. Composite resin was placed at the center of each cement surface in the remaining specimens (n=15). A universal testing machine determined shear bond strength (SBS) and fracture patterns were identified with a dental operating microscope. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and HSD tests. The cement surface in the CP and HP groups presented changes in structure and elemental distribution compared with the remaining groups. The former groups exhibited a decrease in the calcium level and an increase in the silicon level and presented significantly fewer SBS values than the remaining groups (p<0.05). Most failures were adhesive in the CP and HP groups, while they were predominantly cohesive in the remaining groups. The bleaching agents with higher concentration induced deterioration of the cement surface and negatively affected the bond strength of the composite resin to CSC. The use of CSC is recommended as a cervical barrier when intracoronal bleaching is performed with a mixture of sodium perborate with water or 3% H2O2.