Natural history and early diagnosis of LAD-1/variant syndrome

Kuijpers T. W., van Bruggen R., Kamerbeek N., Tool A. T. J., Hicsonmez G., Gurgey A., ...More

BLOOD, vol.109, no.8, pp.3529-3537, 2007 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 109 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Doi Number: 10.1182/blood-2006-05-021402
  • Journal Name: BLOOD
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.3529-3537
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The syndrome of leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) combined with a severe Glanzmann-type bleeding disorder has been recognized as a separate disease entity. The variability in clinical and cell biological terms has remained largely unclear. We present data on 9 cases from 7 unrelated families, with 3 patients being actively followed for more than 12 years. The disease entity, designated LAD-1/variant syndrome, presents early in life and consists of nonpussing infections from bacterial and fungal origin, as well as a severe bleeding tendency. This is compatible with 2 major blood cell types contributing to the clinical symptoms (ie, granulocytes and platelets). In granulocytes of the patients, we found adhesion and chemotaxis defects, as well as a defect in NADPH oxidase activity triggered by unopsonized zymosan. This last test can be used as a screening test for the syndrome. Many proteins and genes involved in adhesion and signaling, including small GTPases such as Rap1 and Rap2 as well as the major Rap activity-regulating molecules, were normally present. Moreover, Rap1 activation was intact in patients' blood cells. Defining the primary defect awaits genetic linkage analysis, which may be greatly helped by a more precise understanding and awareness of the disease combined with the early identification of affected patients.