JOURNAL OF ENDOUROLOGY, vol.36, pp.1511-1521, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Introduction: Incidence of urolithiasis in children has increased in recent years and with technological advancements and miniaturization of surgical instruments, pediatric urologists have acquired an impressive arsenal for their treatment. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) has gained widespread popularity as it is a natural extension of semirigid ureteroscopy and can be done through natural orifice minimizing the morbidity of percutaneous access. The aim of this narrative review is to describe how RIRS has evolved over the decades in children and if the age-related anatomical difference impacts reported outcomes especially stone-free rate (SFR) and complications.Materials and Methods: An electronic literature search from inception to October 15, 2021 was performed using Medical Subject Heading terms in several combinations on PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science without language restrictions. A total of 2022 articles were founded and 165 articles were full-text screening. Finally, 2 pediatric urologists included 51 articles that summarize the available literature regarding the development and use of RIRS in children.Results: RIRS as of today is well established as a superior modality for all stones in all locations compared with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy both in children and adults. The passive dilation has decreased the need of active ureteral dilation, but the need to perform prestenting is not defined yet. Regarding the use of the ureteral access sheath, the literature tends to lean toward its placement in most cases, but we do not know its long-term effects over the growth of children. Finally, the SFR has increased as the experience of pediatric urologists increases, as well as the number of complications has decreased.Conclusion: RIRS in pediatrics has crossed many milestones, yet many areas need further research and larger data are required to make RIRS the procedure of choice for renal stone management in children across all age groups.