Female Modelling and Protection in Road-Traffic Accidents

Himmetoğlu S., Şen F., Özer F. T.

26th International Scientific Conference Transport Means 2022, Kaunas, Virtual, Lithuania, 5 - 07 October 2022, vol.2022-October, pp.308-313 identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume: 2022-October
  • City: Kaunas, Virtual
  • Country: Lithuania
  • Page Numbers: pp.308-313
  • Keywords: adaptive restraints, female injuries, female modelling, whiplash
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 Kaunas University of Technology. All rights reserved.This paper presents a comprehensive review of the crash safety of female occupants with an emphasis on adaptive restraint systems. Accident statistics indicate that females have a higher risk of injury than males; this is because males and females have different physical characteristics. On the other hand, dummies representing average male (50th percentile male) are mostly used in crash tests. The only female dummy currently used in the regulations is the 5th percentile Hybrid III female dummy but this dummy represents a very small female comparable to a 12 year old girl. Therefore, an average female (50th percentile male) dummy and a corresponding computational human-body model are essential. One of the most significant physical differences between males and females are in the neck region. Females experience a higher risk of whiplash associated disorders in comparison to males in spite of the fact that there have been good anti-whiplash seats in the market for about 10 years. Hence, there is a need for adaptive protection systems that can protect males and females equally. In this study, volunteer rear impact tests to validate average female models are described and the available models are mentioned. This study can be a useful source for researchers interested in female modelling and protection regarding adaptive restraint systems.