Objective: The primary aims of the current study were to describe the participation patterns in leisure activities of children between the ages of 6 and 15 years with special needs and to analyze family behavior and personal factors that affect participation. Material and methods: Overall, 112 children with special needs aged 6-15 years and their families participated in the present study. Children's sociodemographic characteristics, participation patterns in leisure activities, family behavior, and quality of life were evaluated. Results: In this study, it was observed that children participated in recreational activities the most and in physical activities the least. Most of the families reported that they did not have an influence on determining the activity. The findings showed correlations between leisure activities and age, gender, and socioeconomic status (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings suggest that (a) children's participation in activities outside the home and (b) family guidance are insufficient. Thus, rehabilitation professionals can inform families about activities appropriate for children, positive family behavior, and social support programs. (c) 2021 French Society of Pediatrics. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.