Resistance to antimicrobial agents in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is common in Turkey,In this review, resistance to several antimicrobial agents in this country is discussed for bacteria which have gained clinical importance in recent years. Among Gram-positives, staphylococci are of major importance because of their high level of resistance to many agents in the hospital and the community. Methicillin resistance in different hospitals ranges from 13% to 37%. High-level resistance to gentamicin occur in enterococci and resistance to glycopeptides have not been reported in these isolates. S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin have been observed in Turkey as 47% in Hacettepe University and most of the resistant isolates were from children with severe underlying diseases. In reports from other hospitals, the level of resistance was lower because of a different patient population. In Gram-negative bacilli, aminoglycoside resistance is a significant problem in the treatment of severe infections in our country. The most common mechanism of resistance in our isolates is the plasmid-mediated enzymatic modification of these agents. Extended-broad spectrum beta-lactamases have been detected in Klebsiella spp. and Salmonella spp. in Turkey. In a Pseudomonas strain, an extended-spectrum variant of OXA-10 was identified. Some isolates were also shown to produce plasmid mediated PER-1 enzymes. Due to resistance problems encountered in many hospitals, restriction control measures have been started in some hospitals in order to limit the antibiotic use and our hope is the country-wide application of these precautions as soon as possible.