Effect of industrial waste-based precursors on the fresh, hardened and environmental performance of construction and demolition wastes-based geopolymers

İLCAN H., ŞAHİN O., Unsal Z., Ozcelikci E., KUL A., Cağatay Demiral N., ...More

Construction and Building Materials, vol.394, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 394
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.132265
  • Journal Name: Construction and Building Materials
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Construction and demolition waste, Fresh properties, Geopolymer, Hardened properties, Industrial waste, Life cycle assessment
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The main goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of incorporation of the industrial wastes into Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW)-based geopolymer mixtures. To do this, a series of CDW-based geopolymer paste mixtures were produced and blast furnace slag (BFS), fly ash (FA), and silica fume (SF) were used to partially replace the CDW-based materials at the substitution rate of 10 and 20 % by weight. Flow table, buildability, vane shear, ram extruder and compressive tests were performed to assess some engineering performances of produced mixtures. Besides that, life cycle assessment analysis was conducted to reveal both the environmental impact of CDW-based mixtures and effects of industrial wastes. The results demonstrated that the geopolymer mixture with higher flowability and longer open time can be obtained by the incorporation of industrial waste precursors. Among them, FA incorporation resulted in the highest improvement in flowability while more decrement in shear yield stress was obtained from the SF-incorporated mixtures. Substitution of CDW-based precursors with industrial wastes provided higher compressive strength test results. Although 100% CDW-based geopolymer paste had lower environmental burden, the mixture using FA, BFS and SF followed very closely behind it. The transportation-related impacts were the most determinative factor for the differences between the environmental performance of geopolymer mixtures containing and non-containing industrial waste-based precursors. Overall, the main sources of environmental burdens of CDW-based geopolymer systems were the alkaline activators, electricity, and transportation. Results showed that industrial waste-based precursor can be successfully used in CDW-based geopolymer matrix to adjust engineering properties without endangering the environmental burden of the mixture.