Therapeutic agents used for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have limited curative efficacy and may trigger serious adverse effects. Cannabinoid ligands exert antiproliferative effect and induce apoptosis on numerous epithelial cancers. We confirmed that CB1 receptor (CB1R) is expressed in NSCLC cells in this study. Arachidonoylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) as a synthetic, CB1R-specific ligand decreased proliferation rate in NSCLC cells by WST-1 analysis and real-time proliferation assay (RTCA). The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) dose of ACPA was calculated as 1.39x10(-12)M. CB1 antagonist AM281 inhibited the antiproliferative effect of ACPA. Flow cytometry and ultrastructural analyzes revealed significant early and late apoptosis with diminished cell viability. Nano-immunoassay and metabolomics data on activation status of CB1R-mediated pro-apoptotic pathways found that ACPA inhibited Akt/PI3K pathway, glycolysis, TCA cycle, amino acid biosynthesis, and urea cycle and activated JNK pathway. ACPA lost its chemical stability after 24hours tested by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. A novel ACPA-PCL nanoparticle system was developed by nanoprecipitation method and characterized. Sustained release of ACPA-PCL nanoparticles also reduced proliferation of NSCLC cells. Our results demonstrated that low dose ACPA and ACPA-PCL nanoparticle system harbor opportunities to be developed as a novel therapy in NSCLC patients that require further in vivo studies beforehand to validate its anticancer effect.