The Bacillus subtilis rec assay has been specially developed to detect DNA-damaging potential in chemicals, with the rationale based on the relative difference of survival of a DNA repair combination proficient strains and its deficient strain, which is interpreted as genotoxicity. The genotoxic activities of newly (1-6) and previously (7-18) synthesized various benzoxazoles and benzimidazoles were analyzed via the B. subtilis rec assay. Newly obtained benzoxazole and benzimidazole derivatives (1-6) were synthesized in the presence of polyphosphoric acid (PPA) and 6 N HCl, respectively to detect their DNA-damaging activities. Among the tested compounds, 6-methyl-2-(o-chlorophenyl)benzoxazole (9), 5-amino-2-(p-methylbenzyl)benzoxazole (4), 5-(p-fluorobenzamido)-2-phenylbenzoxazole (13), and 2-(p-methylaminophenyl)benzoxazole (18) showed genotoxic activities having ReC50 values of 1.85, 1.74, 1.60, and 1.50 or S-probit values of 0.534, 0.482, 0.460, and 0.357, respectively. On the other hand, 2-(p-bromobenzyl)5-methylbenzimidazole (6) and 2-benzyl-5-(p-fluorophenylacetamido)-benzoxazole (15) were exhibited a reverse effect that displayed a bacterial growth in the rec strains while there was no any bacterial growth in rec(+) strains at the same concentration.