The objective of this study was to compare sexually transmitted disease (STD) occurrence and STD complaints in women using intrauterine device (IUD) with women who are nor using any modern contraceptive method in a family planning setting in Trabzon, Turkey. A great majority of all women in both groups were housewives and all indicated their husbands as the first and only lifetime sexual partner. The IUD user group (n = 211) did not differ significantly from the nonuser group (n = 155) in terms of mean age, years of schooling first age at intercourse, frequency of sexual intercourse or practice of vaginal douching (p > 0.05). STD signs and symptoms were not found to be significantly different among both groups, with the exception of vaginal discharge. IUD users complained more of abnormal vaginal discharge than nonusers (RR = 2.09, CI = 1.17-3.75, p = 0,007). Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed with the Gram-staining of the vaginal smear and current IUD users were found to be 2.78 times more likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis as compared to nonusers (p < 0.00). The diagnosis of trichomoniasis, N. gonorrhea, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and Chlamydia was nor found to be associated with IUD use. CONTRACEPTION 2000;61:359-364 (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc. All Fights reserved.