Mitigation of acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural in biscuits using a combined partial conventional baking and vacuum post-baking process: Preliminary study at the lab scale


INNOVATIVE FOOD SCIENCE & EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES, vol.26, pp.265-270, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 26
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ifset.2014.05.002
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.265-270
  • Keywords: Acrylamide, Hydroxymethylfurfural, Biscuit, Conventional and vacuum baking, Combined process, POTATO, ASPARAGINASE, PRODUCTS, COOKIES, IMPACT, FOODS, WHEAT
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


A combined conventional and vacuum process was introduced as a new baking technology to mitigate acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in biscuits in this study. Firstly, these processes were compared for acrylamide and HMF formations, drying rate, and browning development at different temperatures. Acrylamide concentrations in biscuits attained during vacuum baking were significantly lower than those attained during conventional baking at all temperatures studied (p < 0.05). Besides, there was no HMF formation in biscuits during vacuum baking. Comparing to conventional baking, heating under lower pressure provided lower time-temperature profile with slightly accelerated evaporation of water in dough. However, development of surface browning was lacking in vacuum baked biscuits. Secondly, combinations of conventional and vacuum processes were used to produce biscuits. The dough that was partially baked at 220 degrees C for 2-4 min under conventional conditions was post-baked under vacuum for accelerated drying at 180 degrees C and 500 mbar for 4-6 min until the desired final moisture content was attained. Doing so, exposure of biscuits to higher temperatures for longer time, which was essential to facilitate the chemical reactions leading to thermal process contaminants, was prevented. The combined process formed no acrylamide or HMF (