The Effect of Inhibition of Perisynaptic Astrocyte Glycogen Utilization on Depression-Like Behavior Sinaptik Enerji Kaynağı Glikojenin Kullanımının Engellenmesinin Depresyon-benzeri Davranışlara Etkisi


Erk E. E., Demir B. N., Kurşun H. K., Özkan M., DALKARA T., Koçak E. E.

Turk psikiyatri dergisi = Turkish journal of psychiatry, vol.34, no.4, pp.272-281, 2023 (Scopus) identifier identifier

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Under physiological conditions, astrocytes produce lactate to meet the increased synaptic energy demand due to neuronal activity. In the light of the findings showing that this process is disrupted in the pathophysiology of major depression, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of pharmacological inhibition of perisynaptic astrocyte glycogen utilization on anxiety-like behavior and depression-like behavior in female and male mice. METHODS: In this study, DAB (1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol), which is an inhibitor of glycogen breaking enzyme glycogen phosphorylase, was intrahippocampally administered to 15 female and 14 male Swiss albino mice, while 15 female and 12 male Swiss albino mice received intrahippocampal saline injections. Three and five days after the injections, the anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors of the mice were assessed by locomotor activity, open-field test, light-dark box test, tail suspension test and sucrose preference test. RESULTS: Three days after injection, neither depression-like nor anxietylike significant behavioral changes were detected in the male experimental group mice compared to the control group; but an increase in locomotor activity (p=0.05) and time spent in the open-field (p=0.01) were observed on the fifth day. In evaluations of the female experimental group mice on the third and fifth days, depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors were found similar to the control group, as seen in the male mice. The only significant difference in the experimental group female mice was found in the sucrose preference test, which revealed an increased tendency to prefer sucrose (p=0.003) compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The inhibition of glycogen use in the hippocampus by DAB did not affect anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors 3 and 5 days after injection in both female and male mice. The increase in the time spent in the open-field by male experimental group mice was associated not with anxiety, but with increase in the locomotor activity. The fact that no significant difference was observed in the light-dark box test, which is another test used to evaluate anxiety, supported this opinion. The increase seen in the sucrose preference test in female experimental group mice was not interpreted as an increase in hedonic behavior because prevention of glycogen breakdown in the hypothalamus might have homeostatically increased sugar-craving and therefore resulted in an increase in sucrose preference. Different set of tests better targeting the energy and glucose metabolism and applied at farther time points than surgery are recommended for future studies.