The underlying mechanism of the central nervous system (CNS) injury after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is interlaced with multiple factors including apoptosis, abnormal inflammatory responses, hypoxia, and ischemia/reperfusion-like problems. One of the current hypotheses with regard to the molecular mechanism of CO poisoning is the oxidative injury induced by reactive oxygen species, free radicals, and neuronal nitric oxide. Up to now, the relevant mechanism of this injury remains poorly understood. The weakening of antioxidant systems and the increase of lipid peroxidation in the CNS have been implicated, however. Accordingly, in this review, we will highlight the relationship between oxidative stress and CO poisoning from the perspective of forensic toxicology and molecular toxicology.