This study investigated the possible role of depression, self-esteem, problem solving, assertiveness, social support, and some socioeconomic factors on adolescent suicidal behavior in youth in a small city located in the southwestern part of Turkey. Participants in the study were 805 (367 girls) first-year high school students between the ages of 13-18 years. Some 23% of participants reported having thought of killing themselves during the past 12 months or their lifetime. The percentage of students who said that they had attempted to kill themselves was 2.5. Suicidal ideation during one's lifetime or during the past 12 months was more frequent among girls than among boys but suicidal attempts were equally common in girls and boys. Girls scored significantly higher on depression and the Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) but also on assertiveness and perceived social support from friends than boys. Boys tended to score higher on self-esteem than girls. Depression and low self-esteem were the most consistent and independent predictors of suicidal thoughts, attempts, and SPS scores in both girls and boys. The results are discussed in terms of relevant literature with special reference to developmental and sociocultural issues. The implications of findings for the assessment and treatment of suicidal youths are highlighted.