Investigation of Multi-Stage Cold Forward Extrusion Process Using Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Finite Element Analysis


21st International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming (ESAFORM), Palermo, Italy, 23 - 25 April 2018, vol.1960 identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume: 1960
  • Doi Number: 10.1063/1.5034849
  • City: Palermo
  • Country: Italy
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Cold extrusion processes are distinguished by their low material usage as well as great efficiency in the production of mid-range and large component series. Although majority of the cold extruded parts are produced using die systems containing multiple forming stages, this subject has rarely been investigated so far. Therefore, the characteristics of multi-stage cold forward rod extrusion is studied in the current work using thermo-mechanically coupled finite element (FE) analysis. A case hardening steel, 16MnCr5 (1.7131) was used as experimental material. Its strain, strain rate and temperature dependent mechanical characteristics were determined using compression testing and modeled in FE simulations via a Johnson-Cook material model. Friction coefficients for the same material while in contact with a tool steel (1.2379) were determined dependent on temperature and contact pressure using sliding compression test (SCT) and modeled by an adaptive friction model developed by the author. In the first set of simulations, rod material with a diameter of 14.9 mm was extruded down to a diameter of 9.6 mm in a single step using three different die opening angles (2 alpha); 20 degrees, 40 degrees and 60 degrees. In the second set of investigations, the sane rod was reduced first to 12 mm and then to 9.6 mm in two steps within the same forming die. Press forces, contact normal stresses between extruded material and forming die, material temperature and axial stresses are compared in these two set of simulations and the differences are discussed.