Dietary habits in the Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium BC) of Anatolia: A multi-isotopic approach

Irvine B., ERDAL Y. S., Richards M. P.

JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE-REPORTS, vol.24, pp.253-263, 2019 (AHCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 24
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jasrep.2019.01.015
  • Journal Indexes: Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.253-263
  • Keywords: Turkey, Palaeodiet, Subsistence, Bioarchaeology, Biochemistry, Carbon-13, Nitrogen-15, Sulphur-34, BONE-COLLAGEN, PALAEODIETARY, CONSUMPTION, MARINE, HUMANS
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


This paper presents the results of isotopic analysis for dietary reconstruction of humans and animal remains from several prehistoric (3500-2000 BCE) populations in Anatolia. The investigated sites are ikiztepe (north Anatolia, Samsun region, on the Black Sea coast), Titris Hoyuk (south east Anatolia, Urfa region), Bademagaci (south Anatolia, Antalya region), and Bakla Tepe (south west Anatolia, in the Izmir region). This research utilises the results of stable isotope analyses of carbon (delta C-13), nitrogen (delta N-15), and sulphur (delta S-34) in bone collagen from over 200 human and animal samples in conjunction with published archaeological, archaeobotanical, and archae-ozoological data (where present) to address this issue. This study, for the first time, has permitted a wider observation of Early Bronze Age dietary habits and subsistence strategies across the region, as well as examining the nature of dietary habits on an intra- and inter-site level, and temporally across the 3rd millennium BC. The results show that during the EBA in Anatolia there was a general degree of homogeneity in dietary habits at an intra- and inter-site and regional level and across the millennium of the EBA with diets being predominantly terrestrial C-3 based.