Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders characterized by the association of risk factors such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Metabolic syndrome, that increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is a significant problem affecting about one in every two adults in our country. Both environmental and genetic factors may play a role in the development of the syndrome. Recent studies have shown that dysbiosis in the human gut microbiota may also contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic diseases. In this respect, it was thought that the modulation of gut by probiotics might provide beneficial effects on the components of metabolic syndrome. The proposed mechanisms for the effects of probiotics on metabolic syndrome components include regulation of inflammatory response, reduction in oxidative stress, modulation of lipid metabolism, and control of hormone levels which play a role in appetite and glycemic control. Studies have shown that the effects of probiotics on metabolic syndrome components may vary depending on the aim of use, the probiotic strain or strains used, the initial metabolic profile of individuals, and the duration and dose of intervention. Therefore, it is necessary to give specific recommendations according to the indication instead of a general probiotic recommendation. In this review, the effects of probiotics on metabolic syndrome were reviewed by considering the components.