The combination of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is used in the treatment of many common infections such as urinary, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine TMP and SMX simultaneously in human plasma samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using antipyrine as the internal standard. Separation of the compounds was achieved on a reverse-phase C-8 column packed with 5 mu m dimethyl octadecylsilyl bonded amorphous silica (4.6 mm x 250 mm) column using a mobile phase consisted of potassium hydrogen phosphate, acetonitrile, methanol and water adjusted to pH 6.2. The mobile phase was delivered at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) and the effluent was monitored using Max plot technique at 25 degrees C. Retention times were 5 min for TMP, 7 min for antipyrine and 9 min for SMX. Quantitation limits were 10 ng mL(-1) for TMP and 50 ng mL(-1) for SMX. Our findings indicated that the developed HPLC method was precise, accurate, specific and sensitive for simultaneous determination of TMP and SMX. Proposed HPLC method was successfully applied for the analysis of TMP and SMX in human plasma after oral administration of a co-trimoxazole tablet to human volunteers.