A Multinational, Preregistered Cohort Study of beta-Lactam/beta-Lactamase Inhibitor Combinations for Treatment of Bloodstream Infections Due to Extended-Spectrum-beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

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Gutierrez-Gutierrez B., Perez-Galera S., Salamanca E., de Cueto M., Calbo E., Almirante B., ...More

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, vol.60, no.7, pp.4159-4169, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 60 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1128/aac.00365-16
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.4159-4169
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The spread of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is leading to increased carbapenem consumption. Alternatives to carbapenems need to be investigated. We investigated whether beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor (BLBLI) combinations are as effective as carbapenems in the treatment of bloodstream infections (BSI) due to ESBL-E. A multinational, retrospective cohort study was performed. Patients with monomicrobial BSI due to ESBL-E were studied; specific criteria were applied for inclusion of patients in the empirical-therapy (ET) cohort (ETC; 365 patients), targeted-therapy (TT) cohort (TTC; 601 patients), and global cohort (GC; 627 patients). The main outcome variables were cure/improvement rate at day 14 and all-cause 30-day mortality. Multivariate analysis, propensity scores (PS), and sensitivity analyses were used to control for confounding. The cure/improvement rates with BLBLIs and carbapenems were 80.0% and 78.9% in the ETC and 90.2% and 85.5% in the TTC, respectively. The 30-day mortality rates were 17.6% and 20% in the ETC and 9.8% and 13.9% in the TTC, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) values for cure/improvement rate with ET with BLBLIs were 1.37 (0.69 to 2.76); for TT, they were 1.61 (0.58 to 4.86). Regarding 30-day mortality, the adjusted OR (95% CI) values were 0.55 (0.25 to 1.18) for ET and 0.59 (0.19 to 1.71) for TT. The results were consistent in all subgroups studied, in a stratified analysis according to quartiles of PS, in PS-matched cases, and in the GC. BLBLIs, if active in vitro, appear to be as effective as carbapenems for ET and TT of BSI due to ESLB-E regardless of the source and specific species. These data may help to avoid the overuse of carbapenems. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01764490.)