The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between chemokines and the inflammation in Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). Forty-nine patients with FMF (41 in remission and 8 in acute attack period) and 20 healthy controls were included in the study. Serum levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-lot (MIP-1 alpha) were assessed in the patients and the controls, along with other parameters of disease activity, i.e., fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Serum MIP-1 alpha levels of the patients with FMF in acute attack period were significantly higher than the patients in remission and healthy controls (p = 0.02 and p = 0.038, respectively). MIP-lot levels were weakly correlated with CRP (r = 0.32, p = 0.032) levels. MIP-lot may have a role in the pathogenesis of FMF attacks. MIP-1 alpha and other chemokines may constitute a link between the innate immune system and FMF. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.