After a transurethral resection (TUR), chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy is usually applied for 6 to 36 weeks to prevent the recurrence of tumoral tissue. These therapies have many problems, so an alternative pharmacotherapeutic agent delivery system that would supply suitable drug levels for specific time periods was explored. A model pharmacotherapeutic agent, mitomycin-C, delivery system was prepared by using alginate, a mucoadhesive polymer, as the carrier. The alginate carriers were prepared by precipitation and cross-linked with ethylene glycol diglycydyl ether. The alginate carrier precipitation medium (CaCl2), cross-linker and mitomycin-C/alginate ratio were varied to obtain desired attachment to the inner wall of the bladder and provide optimum release rate of the agent. The carrier was cylindrically formed to facilitate insertion for in vivo studies. The mitomycin-C-loaded alginate carriers were implanted into the bladder of New Zealand rabbits. Swelling ratios of the alginate carriers varied from 20% to 45% based on precipitation medium and cross-linker concentration. Ultrasonographic and histopathological findings showed that alginate implants could be kept in position for 1 week.