Accumulation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Oil During Frying of Model Dough

Goncuoglu N., GÖKMEN V.

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS SOCIETY, vol.90, no.3, pp.413-417, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a thermal process contaminant, forms in food during frying as a result of the Maillard reaction and caramelization. Owing to its chemical properties, HMF formed in foods during frying partially transfers into frying oil. This study aimed to investigate the accumulation of HMF in oil during repetitive frying operations. A model dough composed of 25 % of glucose was fried at 160, 170, 180 degrees C for 50 frying cycles. Apart from total polar compounds (TPC), accumulation of HMF was determined in oils during repetitive frying operations. Increasing frying temperature also increased the amount of HMF formed in dough, and those transferred to oil. Prolonging frying cycles to 150, increasing amount of dough being fried to 100 g and frying time to 10 min caused the TPC content to reach 25 % at the 130th frying cycle at 180 degrees C. Under the same frying conditions, the concentration of HMF showed a rapid increase at the first 10th frying cycle. Its increase was at a slower rate until the 50th frying cycle reaching a plateau level exceeding 5.0 mg/L. The results revealed that HMF transferred and accumulated in the frying oil during repetitive frying. The HMF concentration exceeding 5.0 mg/L in oil may be considered as an indicator for heavily used frying oil. Correlation between TPC and HMF contents of frying oil showed no linear correlation.